Viruses in reptiles

Latency is generally maintained by viral genes and sites expressed primarily during latency [36]. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Latency is generally maintained by viral genes and sites expressed primarily during latency [36]. At clinical examination the tortoise was dehydrated and had a severe intestinal parasitic infection (ascarids and oxyurids) diagnosed by the referring veterinarian. The Immobiline strips were equilibrated and then loaded into 4 to 20% Tris-glycine ZOOM gels (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, Calif.) to resolve the second dimension at 125 V. Have you ever wondered what your likelihood of spreading herpes as it was? There is one report of CFPHV polymerase DNA identified in differentiated epidermal and dermal tissues of tumors sampled from green turtles (Work et al.2009).

Arch Virol 154: 171-177. How to tell if it’s a pimple or a cold sore? Fibropapillomas are thus classified as masses in which hyperplasia is observed in both epidermis and dermis (Herbst 1994). These include a herpesvirus infecting the Australian Krefft’s river turtles (Emydura macquarii kreftii) associated with proliferative and ulcerative tegument lesions [26] and Pelomedusid herpesvirus 1 in a clinically healthy West African mud turtle (Pelusios castaneous) [27]. In the last few years an increasing number of novel herpesviruses have been detected in fresh water turtles. Subsequent sequencing of the viral genome opens possibilities for fast characterization, insight into their phylogenetic relationship and epidemiological investigations. Latency is generally maintained by viral genes and sites expressed primarily during latency [36].


It is perhaps unsurprising that many herpesviruses are identified using consensus or degenerate PCR primer sets, but their genomes remain unsequenced (e.g., Bodewes et al., 2014; Sim et al., 2014). Intranuclear enveloped particles of 160-180 nm with an electron dense core of 105-120 nm were visualised by EM. Further complicating matters, antibody cross-reactivity with lung/eye/trachea disease-associated herpesvirus (LETHV), another alphaherpesvirus that is associated with pneumonia, conjunctivitis, and tracheitis in green turtles (28), has been demonstrated with this assay (5, 7). These include a herpesvirus infecting the Australian Krefft’s river turtles (Emydura macquarii kreftii) associated with proliferative and ulcerative tegument lesions [26] and Pelomedusid herpesvirus 1 in a clinically healthy West African mud turtle (Pelusios castaneous) [27]. This virus has been classified into the genus Scutavirus (4). Interestingly, red-footed tortoises (Geochelone carbon aria) kept together with the diseased Argentinian tortoises remained clinically healthy.(4) Epizootics of chronic seromucous rhinitis (running nose syndrome) were described in large populations of captive T. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

A similar disease has been seen in painted turtles (Chrysemys pict a) and in map turtles (Graptemys pseudogeographica) in association with herpesvirus-like particles. In this review article, we summarize some of the success stories in identifying novel herpesviruses through metagenomics, and offer a warning on the topic of virus discovery. All relevant data are within the paper. This neoplastic disease is included in the list of priority research questions based on the opinions of sea turtle researchers who work in fields related to conservation and/or turtle biology [5]. Arch Gesamte Virusforsch. Because herpesviruses are widespread among animals, herpesvirus-like sequences are likely to be present in many metagenomic studies. A complete set of tissues was collected, fixed, and stored in 10% neutral buffered formalin at room temperature for 8 days, and processed routinely for histologic examination.

Furthermore, tumors are most often observed when marine turtles are under stressful environmental conditions as well as when they are in regions with low water quality and in the presence of contaminants and toxins (Formia et al. Circulating neutralizing antibodies were present in two of two tested T. An infection by fibropapillomatosis herpesvirus appears to be associated with oncogenesis under certain circumstances and considerable research effort has focused on the resultant disease: fibropapillomatosis of marine turtles [8, 13, 39, 41, 43–45]. A few (11%) turtles accounted for more than 30% cases having lytic viral replication, and lytic replication was more likely in smaller tumors. However, serologic results only detect past exposure, and the specificity of these tests can be reduced due to antigenic cross-reactions with other pathogens. ChHV5 probably replicates in epidermal cells of tumors, because epidermal intranuclear inclusions (EIIs) contain herpesvirus-like particles. The first approach targeted glycoprotein B, which is known to be immunogenic and neutralizing in other species.

Both CAV-1 and CCV were isolated from tissue or swab samples. Recent studies indicate that Chelonid herpesvirus (ChHV5) is the etiological agent of this disease, though its association with anthropogenically altered environments and the immune status of these animals also appears to contribute to disease expression and tumor formation. The TeHV3 genome is composed of a unique long (UL) and a unique short (US) region, with the US flanked by inverted repeats consistent with a type D arrangement similar to that of Human herpesvirus 3 (HHV3-VZV) and the recently described genome of ChHV5 [22].