Medical Glossary

Not everyone is comfortable with the word ‘deaf’and may prefer to use an alternative such as ‘hearing loss’, ‘hearing impaired’ or ‘hard of hearing’.Hearing loss or deafness can be seen in terms of a spectrum which range from mild loss through to profound (total) deafness.Your child may have been born with the ability to hear but for whatever reason starts to lose their hearing at an early stage in their life. Many result in additional needs requiring life-long management. Knowing what caused your child’s deafness in the first place helps doctors and therapists to pinpoint the right treatments and therapies that can be applied. Otorhinolaryngology. People develop hydrocephalus when the flow of CSF is blocked (obstructive hydrocephalus) or when it cannot be reabsorbed (communicating hydrocephalus). Within the first few days of birth, a treatment called hypothermic cooling may reverse some of the brain damage. When a mother has an infection it can affect her unborn child.

There is a common misconception that jaundice is a minor disorder that will clear up on its own. The most significant sign of PROM is fluid leaking from the vagina. This stage may last up to several weeks, or for as little as a few days. HIE is a type of brain injury that is caused by a lack of oxygen at or around the time of birth. HSV-2 incidence was 1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6, 2.2) per 100 person-years; significant risk factors were African-American race, unprotected receptive anal intercourse, an HIV-positive male sex partner, and six or more male partners in the prior 6 months. ” In contrast to the compelling findings from the NINDS and other studies ( 2 ), investigators from Bonn only found HHV-6B in persons with MTLE and a history of documented encephalitis; 0 of 16 with mesial temporal sclerosis of unknown cause (including six with a history of complex febrile seizures) were positive for HHV-6B ( 3 ). In both trials, the babies were assessed through 12 months of age.


Damage caused by jaundice is nearly always preventable. It is not uncommon for babies to have slightly elevated bilirubin, a waste product formed from unneeded red blood cells, due to the immaturity of the newborn’s liver. Viruses such as herpes simplex virus, HIV, mumps, West Nile virus and others also can cause viral meningitis. It is critical that the hearing loss be identified early and appropriate intervention begin early to expose your child to speech sounds as early as possible. Calcifications in the brain associated with brain damage may be seen with CMV infections. If your delivery is particular difficult, your baby may get lodged in the birth canal. Most strokes are caused by a blockage cutting off the blood supply to the brain (ischaemic stroke).

Usually this is when signs of learning disabilities or intellectual disability surface. In both trials, the babies were assessed through 12 months of age. For the family of herpes virus When chickenpox and regain the ability to get from it, the virus can remain dormant for years in their nerve roots. Of course, an MRI is best for assessing the extent of white matter damage and it can usually show brain injury by one day of age, but since brain injury evolves, brain scans need to be performed at least every few days when brain damage is suspected. In addition, blood vessels are fragile, making the baby more susceptible to brain bleeds, especially intraventricular hemorrhages (IVH). Infant brain damage can be caused by a variety of ways, including oxygen deprivation, infant jaundice, physical trauma suffered during labor and delivery, and infections in the mother’s body. When abnormalities are detected, more frequent brain imaging should take place, and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is better at showing the extent of white matter injury.

Even with medication and proper treatment, the AAP cautions that herpes can cause “serious illness and even death.” And of course, anyone who gets herpes at any time will be a carrier of the virus for life. Intracranial haemorrhage normally occurs in unborn babies when they have a stroke. Congenital infection (infection acquired by the baby before birth) occurred in over 25,000 newborn infants in the United States in the early 1960s, and the majority of these babies were born with hearing loss. This is known as TORCH testing. Putting tubes in cuts down on your child’s risk of having future ear infections and hearing loss. Erb’s Palsy or Brachial Plexus Injury. An ischemic stroke can cause seizure activity in a baby.

Though modern neonatal intensive care has increased survival rates of preterm babies, their underdeveloped bodies are more likely to suffer from medical conditions that cause CP and other disabilities. One of the most serious conditions – but fortunately rare – is called retinoblastoma. This law makes it illegal to discriminate against people with disabilities in all areas of public life (including in employment, education, transportation, and public facilities).