Longitudinal study of Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, indicates intermittent shedding of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 1

Acute and fatal herpesvirus infection in a young Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Gaskin, G. Gel electrophoretic separation of first-round PCR products by using Codehops primers LGH2595/2597 (550 bp). A second stage of the analysis was aimed at expanding the data available for two prototype strains each of EEHV1A and EEHV1B by PCR sequencing directly on amplified necropsy tissue DNA using numerous appropriate partially redundant primers designed based on conserved features of the available EEHV2 or EEHV1A reference sequences from the phage clones. Some animals will repeatedly lay down and stand up. The ORFs are listed in projected order from left to right across the genome and with provisional equivalent map coordinates given based on where they match to the recent complete draft 177,316-bp DNA sequence now available for EEHV1A(Kimba) as reported by Ling et al. Phylogenetic comparisons of the viruses from all nine Indian cases with selected prototype EEHV1A, EEHV1B, EEHV2, and EEHV6 cases at the U71-gM, vGPCR1, HEL, and gH-TK loci are presented in , and graphic alignment presentations of the nucleotide polymorphism patterns for the same four variable loci are presented in .

Despite the lower-than-expected overall GC content, the level does increase to an average of 62% (range, 57 to 66%) for the 17 largest protein coding regions, which are all over 2,500 bp in length and occupy 67.6 kb. Kiupel, R. Once this information is available, it is likely that dosing recommendations for famciclovir will require adjustment. Grobler,D.G., Raath,J.P., Braack,L.E.O., Keet,D.F., Gerdes,G.H., Barnard,B.J.H., Krick,N.P.J., Jardine,J., and Swanepoet,R. Very limited data exists on the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in elephants2 and most of the dosage regimes for gastrointestinal absorption are based on horse dosages since they share a similar  gastrointestinal tract. Order Herpesvirales, p 99–107 In King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ, editors. Often more than one male will gather around the area of a female that is ready to breed, and the most dominant male is the one who is allowed to carry out breeding.

(AP) — Justin Johnson scored 26 points on 12-for-17 shooting and grabbed 14 rebounds while Que Johnson made 8 of 12 shots and added 22 points as Western Kentucky handled UAB in a 76-64 win on Sunday. This strain supplies tRNAs for 7 rare codons (AGA, AGG, AUA, CUA, GGA, CCC, and CGG) in order to improve the expression of heterologous proteins. Four of the eight elephants in the Houston zoo’s herd – Thai, Methai, Tess and Shanti – are mature adults and unlikely to get sick from EEHV. (Carlsbad, CA). The elephant DNA can then be compared to DNA of confiscated ivory to help trace the ivory’s origin. Like Retraction Watch? Using a rapid and sensitive test based on real-time PCR, it has been determined that captive Asian elephants from several herds frequently shed EEHV1 in trunk secretions, and these secretions are a likely mode of viral transmission between animals.

Mac’s mother, Shanti, and the matriarch of the herd, Methai, hovered over his body. She soon realized that if she took a few courses, she could turn her research into a Ph.D. Dunker, C. If the St. Wild populations are restricted to increasingly limited areas of land and are under pressure with regard to habitat loss, poaching, human invasion and various diseases. The latter requires the elephant to ingest liquid through its trunk and then force out the water into a plastic bag. However, herpesviruses do not typically cause lethal infections in their natural hosts and factors contributing to EEHV-associated disease susceptibility remain enigmatic.

Schmitt lead the team which resulted in first elephant born from artificial insemination in 1999 and in his more than 30 years as an elephant veterinarian he has experienced over 50 elephant births some of which were born at the Ringling Bros. In the past four years since the collaboration was officially announced in 2009 under the leadership of Dr. Learn more about the viruses, the research and how to help in the fight against EEHVs here. Ellie is mother to Maliha, 6, and Rani, 16, and grandmother to Rani’s calves, Jade, 6, and Kenzi, who is almost 2. San Rafael, Calif. The capsid is transported to the nuclear pore where the viral DNA is released into the nucleus. Chai’s death is the second the zoo has experienced in recent months.

Since we have discussed these conservation threats in detail in previous blogs (feel free to scroll through to read about them!), I will focus on a few other causes of elephant death. Once removed from their families and natural habitat, their lives consist of little more than chains and intimidation. Guscetti, A. The 54-year-old Packy has shown a recurrence of tuberculosis, and treatment has stopped working and it�€�s been suspended. Scheduled to open in late spring the expansion will highlight the zoo’s global commitment and ongoing work to save elephants in the wild.

Longitudinal study of Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, indicates intermittent shedding of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 1

M., P. CrossRef, PubMed Horadagoda, N. … The published SimPlot software used to display nucleotide identity level comparisons was obtained from Stuart Ray (28). This was not unexpected as these were the two elephants that the keepers reported had switched in their hierarchical ranking. If you are working for a long time in a camp where there is a veterinarian or if you always work very closely with the same veterinarian, he will see to this schedule. The data obtained proved sufficient for relatively robust evaluation of the genetic differences and phylogenetic relationships at the nucleotide and protein levels for segments of three of the most conserved genes POL, portal (POR), and helicase (HEL), as well as for the far more diverged U71(gM) and origin binding protein (OBP) loci.

All Rights Reserved. Our best estimates of the detection limits for first-, second-, and third-round PCR as used here are 375,000, 15,000, and 600 genome equivalents per milliliter of blood. From August 2011 until October 2011, before the change in hierarchy, elephants B, C and D showed elevated levels of EEHV. (a) Comparison across the intact … Acute phase proteins: biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine. EEHV viral shedding was normalised against interferon-γ (IFN-γ) using a standard curve; the qPCR cycle threshold value was converted into a copy number (the number of EEHV and IFN copies within each sample), and the number of EEHV copies was divided by the number of IFN-γ copies in each sample to obtain a ratio. She oversees the work of 200 scientists.

Successful rearing of elephants is where Alex and Vinnie come in. All elephants remained clinically normal during the duration of the study. The negative results support observations that the latter diseases, with the exception of equine viral arteritis, are absent in South Africa. 2006. The question of whether the EEHV should be elevated to the level of a virus subfamily is under deliberation by the Herpesvirales Study Group of the International Committee for Taxonomy of Viruses. When this gland becomes active the elephant enters a state of behaviour known as ‘musth’. Campbell and Cremo each scored 10 points while Campbell grabbed 13 rebounds and Cremo 11.

We may never know the intra- and inter-zoo discussions that led to the choice of Oklahoma — would Los Angeles, which is closer and has more space, an improving elephant program, and a much milder climate, have taken Bamboo and Chai? The natural behavior patterns of the elephant, which have evolved over thousands of years, are denied by this confined, chained, and dominated life. In general neonates and immune-compromised hosts are at higher risk of developing a fatal herpesvirus infection [3, 4]. Study procedures were approved by the Kansas State University Animal Care and Use Committee. Duncan, pictured at 2-days-old, is now a year old and being tested weekly for the herpes virus. Zweig Assistant Professor in Equine Health. Although the investigation and understanding of the impact of the EEHVs is in it’s infancy, preliminary evidence suggest that overall, they represent a significant source of morbidity and mortality in elephants worldwide.

It can be accessed by clicking here. EWB was also proud to be part of the post-monitoring team for Mary, the largest female in a herd of 9 elephants that were once captured and found to be mistreated. “We can only hope we will learn something from Malti’s case that will benefit the research into this disease to help save other elephants in the future,” said Cathy Gaviller, director of conservation, research and education at the Calgary Zoo. Calls for retraction of an article should be based upon an understanding of scientific misconduct, and evidence of fabrication or falsification of data, not a disagreement with the data. Zachariah said.“Moreover, we could not find the presence of the EEHV in the samples of other pachyderms,” he added. 5 oldest living elephants Age Name Species Sex Birth Parents Location 87 Chenkalloor Dakshayani EM F 1930? EEHV was first reported from zoo in North America in 1995, after that there were many incidences of this disease all over the world.

The elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is a poorly characterized virus of elephants that was first observed in healthy wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana) by McCully et al. The Sumatran Conservation Response Units (CRUs) program features wildlife officers, mahouts and elephants already in human care to protect vital habitat, catch and prosecute poachers, and herd wild elephants away from human settlements. The focus of our laboratory research is aimed at understanding how the different classes of herpesviruses usurp control of transcription, DNA replication, cell cycle and other nuclear processes of their host cells and how they also block or evade apoptotic and immune responses in both the lytic and latent state. Elephant populations are declining in some areas, while locally overpopulated in others. He said he believes breeding elephants in captivity increases the species’ chances of long-term survival.