Long Term Neuropsychological Follow-Up in Patients With Herpes Simplex Encephalitis and Predominantly Left-Sided Lesions

Her own work is represented in collections around the world, including the British Museum in London and the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. It features the opinions of leading experts such as Neuropsychologist Dr Barbara A. With respect to the possible neural underpinnings of her memory impairment, the most parsimonious explanation is that the white matter lesions disrupt critical pathways to and from the hippocampus. TGA is a benign, self-limited selective disturbance in anterograde memory that occurs in middle-aged and elderly individuals, consistent with our patient’s demographic. The damage is more extensive in the left hemisphere, completely destroying the hippocampus, amygdala, temporal pole, adjacent sectors of the anterior temporal lobe, and most of the insular cortex, especially the anterior portion. Amnesia should not be attributed to a psychogenic cause solely on the basis of an otherwise normal neurologic examination, electroencephalogram (EEG), and imaging studies, since they would be normal in most cases of TGA and many cases of TEA. Kapur, Narinder 2000.

The vast majority of amnesic patients are chronic alcoholics, suffering from Korsakoff’s syndrome. 1996). 2001), while others (e.g., patients “R.B.” and “G.D.”), with apparently similar pathology, were described as having a retrograde deficit limited to 1–2 yr (Zola Morgan et al. In this perspective, environmental adaptation techniques are used, such as the compensatory technique education to training (exercise), organizational strategies, visual imagery and verbal labeling. The index case had myoclonus, generalized seizures, brisk reflexes, and rigidity. All subjects easily solved all phases of the elemental control task. Discursively, speakers may specify the reported context quite precisely (e.g., When I walked through the door on my first day of kindergarten the teacher said, “hi John”) or vaguely (e.g., During one of our family trips my sister asked me if she could borrow my jacket), or leave it unspecified, as when reporting habitual comments (e.g., Every time they think of it the kids ask, “now can we have a puppy?”).


Complex motor skills such as music performance require not only motor acuity but also the ability to select the correct actions on the basis of factual knowledge (Stanley and Krakauer, 2013). Subacute encephalitis of later adult life mainly affecting the limbic areas. Images are oriented as in Figure 1. She could not describe what was medically wrong with her, other than stating, “People think I am crazy.” Her thought process was goal directed and thought content significant for paranoid delusions, as she refused surgery on the grounds that she did not trust the surgeons and therefore wanted to leave. [Medline]. CW’s semantic memory, though generally preserved in A.S., showed evidence of impairment as he is unable to produce object names, define words and comprehend written material, instead lending himself towards confabulation. Two early case reports described attempts to teach unfamiliar songs to piano players with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type; one by sight-reading (Beatty et al., 1988) and the other by ear (Beatty et al., 1999).

Cultures were negative (bacterial, fungal, and acid fast); PCR for varicella-zoster virus, HSV-1, and HSV-2 were negative; Lyme titers were below threshold; Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test was nonreactive; and the cryptococcal antigen assay was also negative. It is modular and can be applied in the form of short sequences interleaved with medical examinations. On the other hand, even when amnesic patients do acquire new information, they are often still impaired when challenged to generalize or use this information when it is presented in new ways or new contexts. Deficits of attention can occur in a number of settings, such as sleep deprivation, excessive stress, or fatigue. 22, Issue. Usually, the patient experiences brief retrograde and longer anterograde amnesia as well as persistent amnesia about the traumatic event. These results are consistent with a set of unique and parameter-free predictions of the configural deficit hypothesis.

A virus had invaded her brain and stolen her memories. This circuit, the Papez circuit, is probably the most important circuit for clinicians dealing with behavioral abnormalities; familiarity with it allows them to think systematically about the anatomic foundations of behavioral neurology. The dissociative disorders are methods of avoiding anxiety through the process of pathological dissociation. However, significantly fewer RSEs were produced in amnesia sessions (273) than in NC sessions (554). Therefore, the aim of the present article is to begin filling in our understanding of the breadth and depth of losses possible in retrograde amnesia. It is concluded that diencephalic damage has a particular effect on the ability to make recency judgements and that this represents a fundamental difference between diencephalic and temporal lobe amnesia. Retrograde amnesia – is the loss of memories on the events leading up to the time of the disease.

Here we report an individual (MS) with acquired prosopagnosia who, despite bilateral damage to much of this network, demonstrates the ability to distinguish voices of several well-known acquaintances from voices of people that he has never heard before.