KINETICS OF VIRAL LOADS AND GENOTYPIC ANALYSIS OF ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS-1 INFECTION IN CAPTIVE ASIAN

J. Gibbs, S. These particles were seen budding through the nuclear envelope in case No. The U39(gB)-U38(POL) locus data for 19 more EEHV1 strains used in Fig. After this date, the management style changed to ‘protected contact’ (where there is always a physical barrier between the keeper and the elephant (Association of Zoos and Aquariums 2011). You can write the date and dose given on a calendar, including the next bi-annual treatment. Schematic map of position coordinates for all sequenced loci in EEHV3, EEHV4, EEHV5A, EEHV5B, and EEHV6 compared to the complete EEHV1A(Kimba) genome.

Representative agarose gel–ethidium bromide PCR band results obtained after first-round (520 base pairs [bp]) and second-round seminested (250 bp) amplification with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus PAN-POL primers from 12 samples of necropsy … Elephant D had the highest frequency of positive samples at 61.7 per cent (22 out of 34). The linear distance-based protein level phylogenetic tree given in shows relationships and subgrouping among this protein family, of which the closest viral or cellular homologue is retinoic acid-induced protein 3 (RAIP3), an orphan group G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Alenius, and K. Faecal glucocorticoid and progesterone analyses were performed using the protocol described by Watson and others (2013). “She has an unusual passion for science,” says Hayward, who says he marvels at her energy, particularly considering that she’s also a mother to two young daughters, ages 9 and 5. The recognition of elephant herpesviruses which can be highly pathogenic for elephants and may cause a fatal haemorragic disease, is fairly recent.

Mean ± SD plasma penciclovir concentrations in young (4.5- to 9-year-old) Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at various times after oral administration (5 mg/kg [black circles]) and rectal administration (5 mg/kg [black inverted triangles] and … Antibodies against most viruses were encountered in all vegetation zones in South Africa, but most viruses were more prevalent in the high-rainfall zone in KwaZulu-Natal. 13: 722-732. What depiction of the relationships is most usefully informative? During this time, the elephant becomes highly agitated, aggressive and can be dangerous. (AP) — Michigan State starting guard Eron Harris will need season-ending surgery on his injured right knee, ending his college career. The zoo has finally unburdened itself of its trophies-turned-targets, but in a way that ensures maximum public and political ill will.

Pathologic changes in the capillary endothelial cells with herpetic inclusion bodies and weak cross-neutralization in serum neutralization tests with bovine herpesviruses suggested that the etiologic agent was a hitherto unidentified herpesvirus [8, 9], which was identified in 1999 [10]. Varicella-zoster virus replication, pathogenesis, and management. Veterinarians at Baylor College of Medicine called their zoo colleagues with condolences, asking if there were any way they could help. EEHV2 has been associated with the deaths of two African elephants while EEHV3 and 4 have been associated with the death of one Asian elephant calf each (Garner et al., 2009; Latimer et al., 2011; Richman et al., 1999). Mary and the “Hwange 9” are no longer monitored as they successfully integrated back into the wild. In November 2007, a hippo died after a 29-hour road trip to the Calgary Zoo from the Denver Zoo in a climate-controlled truck. They die of tuberculosis, arthritis, chronic foot problems, and stress-related herpes viruses.

The result available from this study could contribute to set up a disease prevention plan for Asian elephants and provide great benefits to long-term elephant conservation. The disease has a sudden onset characterized by lethargy, oral ulcerations, edema in the skin of the head and proboscis, cyanosis of the tongue, decreased white blood cell and platelet count and massive internal hemorrhages, which lead to death within 12–72 h after onset of the symptoms. In contrast, in the latent state, the viral lytic cycle triggers are repressed, the viral genomes are maintained as episomes and the cells may become immortalized. Negative elephant/human interactions include crop loss, human fatalities, and damage to houses and other structures. Nevertheless, he said, it’s the stated mission of the breeding program to both preserve the genetic code of a particular captive species and to work toward education and conservation of native habitats. The Department of Agriculture is charged with enforcing the Animal Welfare Act. “This insidious, elephant-specific disease has a mortality rate estimated between 80 and 90% and has been the cause of death of approximately 25% of the Asian elephants born in North America since 1978.

Malti was precocious and playful and had been thriving at the zoo, but the young elephant died Saturday afternoon, less than a week after contracting the deadly elephant herpesvirus. She received around-the-clock treatment but died Saturday afternoon, according to a BioPark news release. But at age 4, when he was tipping the scales at 3,600 pounds, keepers noticed his mouth was slightly reddened. When they looked at heart, liver, and tongue tissues under a microscope, they saw signs of severe bleeding and telltale blotches that pointed to an unknown virus.