Herpes Simplex Virus type-1 infection induces synaptic dysfunction in cultured cortical neurons via GSK-3 activation

Four Rep proteins are produced from the rep gene by two different promoters and splicing patterns. or topical cidofovir (63, 64). J., and Pedersen, B., 1984, Antibody dependent immune mechanisms and herpes simplex virus infections, in: Immune Mechanisms in Herpesvirus Infections (B. The mortality rate for untreated infants who develop disseminated infection exceeds 70% (106). If you have herpes symptoms at delivery, a ‘C-section’ is usually performed. The carboxyl terminus of HSV-1 γ34.5 binds and retargets the host phosphatase PP1α to eIF2α, thus targeting eIF2α for dephosphorylation and reversing the shutoff of protein synthesis (Fig 2) [11]. 1C).

Persistent CD4+ T-cells may be deleterious in that they enhance the probability of HIV-1 acquisition. Some sensory neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) of latently infected mice contain the viral genome, and the number of copies per neuron varies from 1 to more than 100057,58. An operational definition of HSV-1 latency is the persistence of viral DNA in the absence of infectious virus. Two prospective randomized phase III clinical trials have demonstrated that short term (1 month–2 years) vein graft failures are the result of intimal hyperplastic lesions [2–8]. This global shutoff stems from at least two distinct inhibitory pathways. These data suggest that both GSK-3 and Cdk-5 are involved in the HSV-1-induced phosphorylation of APP, with the former playing a prominent role. Frequent periodical reactivations of the latent virus and its transmission from the trigeminal ganglia to the periphery through the cell-to-cell spread may lead to recurrent infections of the cornea associated with severe T-cell mediated inflammatory lesions that finally may result in HSK [6] and blindness [7].

The formation of replication compartments follows an ordered assembly process, resulting in a drastic remodeling of the nucleus [1], [2], [10]–[13]. The two genomes also differ by 172 insertion/deletion events (indels), most of which are insertions or deletions of single bases in noncoding regions; however, 26 indels are in-frame additions or removals of codons. Here, we demonstrate that HSV-1 dl1403 contains a previously unrecognized secondary mutation that renders it incapable of synthesizing the wild type gC gene product. The atherogenic mechanisms of HSV may involve increasing adherence of leukocytes to endothelium, inducing lipid accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and contributing to deposition of thrombin in atherosclerotic plaques [9–11]. It also plays a role in posttranslational modification of cellular RNA polymerase II (see reference 27 and references therein). This last step in virus egress follows the normal exocytic pathway, but there is evidence for redistribution of the Golgi apparatus and TGN membranes in the cell and to surface membranes (10, 37, 59). Expression of ICP0 leads to the degradation of a number of proteins, including the centromeric histone variants CENP-A (42), -B (41), and -C (16), as well as constituents of the PML nuclear bodies (17, 22), which are thought to be part of the innate antiviral defense (14, 58).

(D) Southern blot showing L-segment inversion and L-segment termini in high-molecular-weight DNA from R7713-infected cells. 56) and VP16 were obtained from Dr Bernard Roizman (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL). However, they end by noting that “prospective evaluation of blood HSV-PCR testing and assessment of HSV viral load and duration of DNAemia are needed to better understand their relationship to pathogenesis, prognosis, and risk of recurrence.”10. The distinction between an immunotherapeutic vaccine and prophylactic vaccine is critical. UL10). Thus, HSV takes advantage of the anatomy and axonal transport systems in sensory neurons so that VP16 is left behind and latency is favored, while features of the VP16 promoter insure adequate virus spread in the nervous system and maximized latent infections. The majority of clinical trials to date have focused on prophylactic subunit vaccines, largely using the HSV-2 surface glycoproteins as immunogens.

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection is a rare and serious neonatal illness. In contrast, although expression of productive-cycle transcripts could be detected within 4 h following explant cultivation of latently infected ganglia, no differences between LAT+ and LAT- viruses could be seen. HSV-1 is a ubiquitous human pathogen that causes persistent infections for the lifetime of the infected host. The portal is a 12-mer of UL6, the portal protein. Direct corneal infection of rabbits with 17syn+ propagated in Vero cells caused 60% (6 of 10) to develop severe central nervous system (CNS) disease as evidenced by seizures and/or paralysis; all neurologically impaired rabbits died. This vector was able to efficiently infect and express lacZ in cells refractory to traditional methods of gene transfer. Calcium phosphate chromatography (Brushite) was employed to separate one immunoprecipitin (designated CP-1) from the remaining viral and host antigens.

The HSV lytic program is initiated by the virion transactivator VP16, which acts in combination with host factors to stimulate transcription of the five IE genes (reviewed in references 16 and 60). Herpes simplex virus 1 fuses with the plasma membrane of a host cell, and the incoming capsids are efficiently and rapidly transported across the cytosol to the nuclear pore complexes, where the viral DNA genomes are released into the nucleoplasm.