Enterovirus Infections: Etiologic, Epidemiologic and Clinical Aspects

The space between grid lines is 1 unit of antigenic distance, corresponding to a 2-fold dilution of antiserum in the neutralization assay. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s post-hoc test was used to analyze differences among groups. Moreover, it is well documented that molecular methods are much more sensitive than virus isolation for detecting enterovirus infections [20,21]. Recently, Western Pacific Regional Office of the World Health Organization has established a HFMD reporting system to collect monthly HFMD case number from China, Hong Kong, Macao, Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore and Vietnam (http://www.wpro.who.int). All peaks above the threshold line were from EV-A71 patients (confirmed by sequencing). From here, the addition of the rectal swab results would increase the yield to 79 patients, whereas ulcer swab results would increase it to 75 patients; the rectal swab was therefore added next, and the ulcer swab was added last, increasing the yield to 82 patients (78%). Fax: 82-2-762-9662.

The 2C and 3A regions of the strains were closely related to CA5 and EV71B respectively (data not shown), although the bootstrap value was very low. The similarity of sequences was also represented in the bottom table. Fig 2. The surviving gerbils inoculated with 1×104.0 or 1×103.0 TCID50 EV71 showed the same changes in antibody levels. Mainland China is relatively backward in developing HFMD cases report systems. The yield of EV71 RNA was normalized to that of 18S rRNA. Instead genetic communication and cooperation between different species can be very important.

(B) 21-day-old gerbils were inoculated with 1×103.5 or 1×105.5 TCID50 of EV71 via IP (n = 8 for each dose group). SP70 epitope incorporated in HVR1, HVR2, or HVR7 was exposed on the virion surface. To overcome the autocorrelation within each individual series, the correlation coefficients between the number HFMD and climate variables were computed after pre-whitening. Thus, EV71 subtype C4 has become a predominant strain and has been continuously circulating and causing epidemics in neighboring countries and regions. A third tree partition was represented by the clade of genogroup A. (A) Secondary structures within the 5’UTR were predicted by MFold as depicted earlier [15]. The reactivity of the antibody to each synthetic peptide was analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to the protocol previously reported by Panezutti et al.

The reproducibility of PVLA assay was evaluated by calculating the coefficient of variation. Upon confluence, cells were pelleted, washed three times with cold PBS, resuspended in CHAPS buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.4, 1 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EGTA, 0.5% CHAPS, 10% glycerol, 0.1 mM PMSF, 5 mM 2-ME), and then incubated on ice for 30 min for swelling. Enrichment of gene-trap insertions in genes related to synthesis of sialylated glycans. H3N2 sample amino acid substitution summary and selection analysis by group per segment analyzed. Because wt C57BL/6J mice obtained from The Jackson Laboratory demonstrated a slightly higher susceptibility to CVB4 infections than C57BL/6 mice from Taconic Farms (see Fig. The infectious clone 4643M was constructed by replacing 5′-UTR of template MP4 with sequence of 4643. The primers used for CV-A16 detection are listed in Table S1.

Blood samples from age-matched control patients with fever who were admitted for treatment for acute bronchitis, acute pharyngitis, acute sinusitis, herpangina, or acute tonsillitis and did not have a history of KD were included for comparison. The epidemic area proportion of influenza varied widely between 0.4 and 10.8% in the 7 years, with a mean of 6.0%. With this in mind, current efforts are aimed at developing antiviral compounds with broad-spectrum activity, targeting a wide range of viruses within a genus or ideally even multiple genera. Once the EV-A71 vaccine is approved and the vaccination program rolled out, the build-up of intestinal immunity among vaccinees may contribute to evolutionary pressures on EV-A71. The identification of recombination events was assisted through the assignment of 3Dpol sequences of EV71 isolates to individual recombinant forms, as developed for the analysis of EV species B viruses (37, 38). And the CVA6 was confirmed as the causative agent [4]. Ribavirin, a guanosine nucleotide analog, is a mutagenic reagent that can be wrongly incorporated into RNA viral genomes during RNA synthesis because their RdRp lack proofreading and repair mechanisms.

Sign up for any of my placenta services at the class and you will receive $10 DISCOUNT! Akin to other RNA viruses that cause diseases in humans, EV71 relies on host genetic factors to invoke different physical responses to the same virulence factors of the pathogen. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Both EV71 and CA16 were prevalent in 2009. There is currently no specific antiviral agent to treat or vaccine to prevent EV71 diseases. The enteroviruses are responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including non-specific febrile illness, sometimes with rash, aseptic meningitis, paralytic disease, respiratory infections, pericarditis and myocarditis.