Enterovirus 71-Induced Neurological Disorders in Young Gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus: Development and Application of a Neurological

This genotype replacement has also been observed in Malaysia and Vietnam [10], [19], [20]. The virus was concentrated with 30% sucrose cushion by ultracentrifugation using Beckman SW28 rotors (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA, USA) at 121,896 g (26,000 rpm) for 4h at 4°C. The diagnosis in these “not dengue” cases was not determined, but were presumed viral infections. The nucleotide identity between Fuk2001-282 and Fuk2005-123 was only 85.0%, although these strains were isolated in the same region within only four years of each other. Limited transmission between parents and children was demonstrated, despite the inconsistent positive detection and incongruent serotypes obtained. Full genomes of selected EV71 viruses were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis and detection of gene recombination [9–11]. This study was approved by the CGMH Ethics Committee and written informed consents were obtained from guardians of participating children.

Based on the alignment of all 2,028 EV-A71 VP1 sequences available in GenBank, the amplification primers and probe designed by Tan et al. In this study, we report that the serum level of galectin-1 in patients is increased. Number of samples from each region is provided in Figure 1. A sterile 24-gauge needle was used to rupture the vesicle, and a swab was used to absorb the fluid. Detection of EV by viral culture.Conjunctival swab specimens were inoculated onto two cell lines (HeLa cells and MRC-5 cells), and the cells were observed for the development of cytopathic effects. Vero cell monolayers in 2% DMEM were infected at a multiplicity of infection of 0.01 CCID50, and the virus titer was determined by a standard micro-titration assay as previously described [21]. The highest weekly incidence rate per 1,000 population was 7.4 in week 8 of 2002, 14.9 in week 4 of 2003, 14.1 in week 5 of 2004, and 21.2 in week 9 of 2005.


of Sun Yat-Sen University). Due to the retrospective nature of the study, stools were the only specimen sent routinely to virology laboratory for enterovirus testing and collection of more types of samples could not be performed. EV71 has an icosahedral viral particle containing a single, positive-sense RNA (7.5–8.5 kb) and four structural capsid proteins, including VP1, VP2 and VP3 on the external surface of the virion and VP4 within the interior of the viral particle [10]. The residue variants identified in this study needed to be further verified by large sample size with more even geographic distributions, and combined with biological functional studies in both neuron cell and animal models. The clinical manifestations caused by CA6, CA10, CA4 and other genotype of enteroviruses differed from EV71 and CA16. The virus sample consisted of EV strains identified in clinical specimens (cerebrospinal fluid, throat swabs, and feces) obtained during routine virologic diagnosis in patients admitted to the hospitals of Clermont-Ferrand (France; 2000–2012; n = 58 strains) and Monastir (Tunisia; 2011–2013; n = 16) (S1 Table). 21-day-old gerbils were obtained from the Animal Center of Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Hangzhou, China.

The first and last baby was born on September 10, 2007 and August 1, 2008, respectively. EV71 Tainan/4643/98 was obtained from Jen-Ren Wang, National Cheng Kung University (Tainan, Taiwan). They challenge our notion of organisms as entities with clear, well-defined boundaries. Virus titer was 1×107.0 tissue culture infection dose (TCID50) determined using Vero cells according to the Reed—Muench method [27]. So it is necessary to develop non-Ad5 vector as an epitope-delivering system. This predicable model would be used to facilitate efficient HFMD control. Participating physicians collected specimens from patients whose illnesses included HFMD, herpangina, meningitis, encephalitis and sepsis, and documented patient age, date of specimen collection, symptoms and suspected diagnosis.

Genogroup A includes the EV-A71 prototype strain BrCr, which was isolated in California in 1969; for decades thereafter, no other circulating strains were observed in this genogroup. Our previous studies showed that hnRNP A1 and AUF1 associate with this region [12,15]. Experimental vaccines that have been tested in animal models include a live-attenuated virus [8]–[13], formalin-inactivated virions [14], [15], baculovirus expressed virus-like particles [16], VP1 recombinant protein [17], [18], a VP1 DNA vaccine [19], a VP1 peptide-based vaccine [20], [21], bacterial or viral vectors expressing VP1 [17], [22], and a Vero cell-adapted live attenuated virus [13]. EV71 is of particular interest since it can cause major hand-foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks, such as those recently reported across the Asia-Pacific countries [5]–[8]. There is EV71 vaccine in development to declare. The other seven patients had no skin or mucosal lesions. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) 1 g/day for two days and supportive care.

Many of the pathologic microorganisms are viruses, and children are particularly prone to such infections, since their immune systems are still in the development stage. RESULTS: Between April and December 1998, 405 children were hospitalized, and 78 patients died during this outbreak in Taiwan. The aetiology of KD has not been defined, but is assumed to be infection-related.