Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpes Virus | International Elephant Foundation

Furthermore, infection with HSV-2, HPV, or HIV may result in negative reproductive morbidity, including neonatal transmission of these infections, cervical and genital cancer, and even premature death. 46: 97–104. K. Does this virus affect African elephants too? These studies were conducted during October and November 2011 with the approval and participation of the Department of Forest and Wildlife in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India. Marked thickening of the intestinal wall because of edema and congestion was noted throughout the alimentary tract. Zong, S.Y.

Byron Martina by email b.martina@artemisonehealth.com or office phone +31 (0)30 635 5444. Samson is not being isolated because his co-inhabitants, as well as zookeepers and visitors, aren’t deemed at risk for the infection. since 2008. Trunk washes were collected by having the elephant draw up 50 ml of saline into its trunk, the trunk was then elevated for 30 seconds, and the elephant then forcefully expelled the saline into a plastic freezer bag. The renal toxicity of the drug should also be considered in its therapy. The chronic form is very difficult to heal completely, especially because the condition is very difficult to diagnose accurately and because treatment requires such a long period of time. Four of these viruses, EEHV1, EEHV3, EEHV4, and EEHV5, were first detected in blood or necropsy tissue from cases of acute viremic disease in Asian elephants, whereas just three known cases of this disease in African elephants involved two other related viruses, EEHV2 and EEHV6 (1, 4).

The proposed (indicated with a blue asterisk) Deltaherpesvirinae (δ) subfamily branches from between the Betaherpesvirinae (β) and Gammaherpesvirinae (γ) lineages. Asian elephants that are less than 10-years old and have been moved to another facility and/or have had contact with African elephants are at increased risk for contracting EEHV. Originally, two species of EEHV were described: EEHV1 was associated with 11 cases in captive Asian elephants, and EEHV2 was associated with the deaths of two young African elephants (Richman et al., 1999). Asian elephants have been listed as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature since the mid-1980s. Reactivation of human herpesviruses from latency is thought to occur as a result of immunosuppression during stressful physiological states such as occurs in: pregnancy, organ transplant and chemotherapy patients (Sakamoto and others 1982, Greenberg and others 1987, Dahl and others 1999). It can be passed either through birth or contact with another infected elephant, Terell said. Because these viruses have not yet been propagated in cell culture, obtaining the complete genome sequence of EEHV-1 has been a major challenge.

Another antibiotic, levofloxacin, has been safely used in elephants as part of tuberculosis treatment but current dosage levels are based on experience. The mechanistic basis for the virulence of these viruses remains poorly understood. Seven major genotypes, named EEHV1 to EEHV7, which all qualify as distinct species within the Proboscivirus genus, have been identified within North American elephants (1, 2, 9,–12), although EEHV1A has been associated with the majority of lethal cases. Born in 2011, she quickly became one of the zoo’s most beloved animals. Highlights of these promising cases were presented at the workshop. Received 19 February 2013. The Oklahoma City Zoo has been a long-time contributor to research of EEHV in elephants and the information gathered from its local elephant population contributes to the global understanding of the disease in elephants worldwide.

Until Watoto’s death, Bamboo and Watoto had to always be separated due to incompatibility, effectively confining them to a fraction of an acre outdoors. She and her dance friends are wearing the wristbands and spreading the word about EEHV. The laboratory is currently developing a test intended to identify at risk elephants. Jacobsen. Also during period 1 EEHV-1 shedding was of a higher magnitude and frequency than in the latter two time periods. The liver was markedly swollen. Nearly one year later, I’m proud to share the Oklahoma City Zoo is making an unprecedented commitment to the health of our elephants.

Six samples gave positive amplicons for EEHV1 specific primers and two samples gave positive amplicons for EEHV3/4 specific primers. A SYBR Green I-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to identify EEHV1 on trunk swabs and necropsied tissues. Although generally benign, herpesviruses can cause a variety of diseases, including cancer. “Take all opportunities, and ask questions of everyone,” she says. Probably something is wrong on our end but now that we know about it, we will try to fix it. SEATTLE – A previously unknown elephant herpes virus killed the Woodland Park Zoo’s youngest Asian elephant, Hansa, zoo officials said Monday. The Houston Zoo is profoundly dedicated to the health and welfare of their collection animals, but they are also renowned for their education and outreach programs.

Am J Vet Res. The Oklahoma City Zoo announced Thursday that 4-year-old female Asian elephant Malee died.