Cytokine mRNA Expression in Lesions in Cats with Chronic Gingivostomatitis

Suggested causes have been bacterial, viral (especially calicivirus) and immunological (possible hypersensitivity to plaque proteins). Cats with FCGS are very painful and often have difficulty chewing and eating. Oral inflammation is often extensive, and affected tissues are typically ulcerated, edematous, hyperemic, and proliferative (Figure 1). (Figure 3 and 4) Studies suggest that cats that undergo extractions respond favorably 80% of the time, requiring no further therapy. A brief discussion to educate the owner in the benefits to the patient of proper oral hygiene was made. A subset of cats remains unresponsive to treatments (~ 20-30%). Some cats with dental conditions will eat by chewing on one side of the mouth to avoid hurting the affected side, or swallow dry food whole to avoid chewing completely.

UC Davis has developed a stem cell therapy they say “holds great promise for routine treatment” for cats suffering from gingivostomatitis. Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is a poorly defined syndrome of unknown etiology and is characterized by a focal or diffuse chronic inflammatory response involving the gingiva and oral mucosa, often extending to involve the fauces (13, 20, 52). We can, however, offer a treatment strategy that brings relief to a large majority of cats with FCGS. All other procedures are covered by the study. But again, this relief is generally temporary. Our treatment and management protocol can be downloaded here. In humans, when the lesions appear on the crown of the teeth they become painful and the same is thought to be true in cats.

All four of his canine teeth were broken below the gum line, and he was very uncomfortable when surgeons touched his mouth. The response to elective surgical extraction is technique dependent and it should be done under radiographic control to ensure the extraction of all root remnants. Cats that responded to treatment also exhibited systemic immunomodulation demonstrated by decreased numbers of circulating CD8+ T cells, a normalization of the CD4/CD8 ratio, decreased neutrophil counts, and interferon-γ and interleukin (IL)-1β concentration, and a temporary increase in serum IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α concentration. Two teeth, numbers 309 and 409, were extracted. He recovered after another month of treatment. After the last dose, the owner continued treatment with 10,000 IU FeIFN Ω in 2 ml of isotonic saline daily for 2 months and then Q 48 H for an additional month. Treatment for FCGS is very aggressive, and involves pulling out all affected teeth.

“We’re the first researchers to come up with this patent-pending technique for any mammals, including humans,” Arzi said. Contact: If you are interested in determining whether your dog is eligible for the trial, please schedule an appointment for evaluation with one of the participating clinical services by calling the Small Animal Clinic at (530) 752-1393 and following the prompts for either Soft Tissue Surgery, Dentistry and Oral Surgery or Oncology. Some patients may exhibit mild signs early in the progression of the disease and then later fail to respond to conservative therapy, developing severe lesions. Without being able to reproduce the disease, researchers have no idea what causes it or how to effectively treat it. Daily tooth brushing would help decrease plaque accumulation, but brushing is difficult in stomatitis cats—an understatement!—due to oral pain. Initial Evaluation for Participation: Evaluation by the V.M.T.H. This photograph was taken after surgical healing.

Food allergies could be the culprit. Causes and Risk Factors – Actual cause unknown, bacterial, viral and immunologic etiologies are suspected. Behavior (eg, hypersalivation, activity level), clinical signs, and inflammatory lesions were evaluated and scored. Early pre-clinical studies showed the company’s eRapa compound led to average or above-average improvement in cats suffering from this condition. Sometimes this disease can develop when the cat is very young. The prognosis depends on the underlying cause. Various modes of therapy have been used to attempt to alleviate pain and inflammation in cats that are refractory to surgical removal of the premolars and molars in cases of feline stomatitis.

Dental disease in cats is commonly associated with the accumulation of dental plaque (as a result of bacteria in the mouth) and tartar formation … this can result in what is termed ‘periodontal disease’ – disease affecting the teeth and the structures around the teeth that support and keep them healthy. The condition has been associated with certain viruses. In a last-ditch effort, Bob’s owner enrolled him in a clinical trial to receive a novel stem cell therapy treatment. Biopsies were collected from 30 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis (diseased) prior to each cat receiving one of four treatments. 1999). Stomatitis is an inflammation of the soft tissues in the mouth. Periodontal disease is an inflammation of some or all of a tooth’s deep supporting structures.

Correspondence: Boaz Arzi, D.V.M., Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, One Shield Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA.